Type: Roman Fort
Maiden Way: SSE (7) to Banna (Birdoswald, Cumbria)|
via Robin Hood's Butts
The sole classical geographical reference to the Roman fort at Bewcastle is very likely the Fanocodi entry in the Maia (Bowness on Solway, Cumbria) and Brocavum (Brougham, Cumbria). This Ravenna entry has been identified with Bewcastle on the basis that out of the nine known Roman altars recovered from the site, six are dedicated to the Germanic war god Cocidius, and upon a simple expansion the Ravenna text may be read Fanum Cocidi which means 'The Shrine of Cocidius'; this is a presumption only and uncorroborated by any further epigraphic evidence.
|NY 5653 7459||c. 650 x 650 feet
(c. 200 x 200 m)
|c. 6 acres
(c. 2.4 ha)
The fort at Bewcastle is very unusual in that it has an irregular hexagonal outline - most un-Roman. Originally built in the Hadrianic period, its defences were of turf and timber, revetted at the front with a stone cladding at sometime during the Antonine period in the mid-2nd century, further improvements were made during the time of Severus in the early-3rd C. The fort is roughly hexagonal with no two angles or sides quite the same, measuring about 650 feet (c. 200 m) across; the internal occupation area is about 6 acres (c. 2.4 ha). The ruins of the late-13th century Bew Castle itself occupies and thereby obliterates the north-eastern corner of the Roman fort, with the contemporary churchyard of Saint Cuthbert's occupying much of the southern part of the fort, while the north-western quarter is occupied by the buildings of the late-17th century Demesne Farmhouse.
|IMP CAES TRAIANO HADRIANO AVG LEG II AVG ET XX V V ...IICNC.IR... LEG AVG PR PR|
|"For the emperor Caesar Traianus Hadrianus Augustus, the Second Augustan Legion and the Twentieth Valiant and Victorious [...]¹ pro-praetorian legate of the emperor."|
|(RIB 995; dated: c.AD126)|
It is almost certain that the Bewcastle fort was first built in the reign of Hadrian and is contemporary with similar forts at Castra Exploratorum (Netherby, Cumbria) and Blatobulgium (Birrens, Dumfries & Galloway), which are all situated about half a days march north of the Hadrianic curtain wall.
|LEG II AVG FECIT|
|"The Second Augustan Legion made this."|
Other building inscriptions found at Bewcastle (vide supra et infra) have shown that at least three legions have claimed responsibility for building or renovating sections of the fort; Legio Sextae Victrix Pia Fidelis who were stationed at York in the north of England, Legio XX Valeria Victrix from Chester in the north-west Midlands, and even Legio II Augusta from Caerleon in South Wales.
|LEG VI V P F VEXILLA TIO FEC|
|"A detachment of the Sixth Victorious Legion, Loyal and Faithful made this."|
|(RIB 997.b; Britannia ix 1978, p.474, no.9)|
The coins from this fort have been obtained from excavations in 1937 (15, inc. 2 illegible) and 1977 (9), and another 6 from investigations conducted between 1922 - 1962. Of these 28 identifiable coins, 6 belong to Tetricus I, 4 to Tetricus II, plus another 4 mid-3rd century radiates. This coinage evidence alone indicates an occupation into the late-4th century.
|I O M COH I DAC ... ... .AT.E..T.. > LEG II AVG VSLM|
|"To Jupiter Best and Greatest, the First Cohort of Dacians (and) [...]¹ centurion of the Second Augustan Legion, willingly and deservedly fulfilled their vow."|
|(RIB 991; altarstone)|
The only inscription on stone which identifies an auxiliary unit is an altar to Jupiter Optimus Maximus which names Cohors I Dacorum (vide supra). This unit was a one-thousand strong infantry unit levied from among the various Celtic tribes of Dacia, which province lay in the region of modern east Romania, including parts of south-eastern Hungary and northern Yugoslavia. The unit is also attested in numerous inscriptions at Banna (Birdoswald, Cumbria) dating from the early third century, and from a single undated building inscription from the vallum to the rear of Hadrian's Wall, between Turret-7b and Mile Castle-8 (vide RIB 1365).
In all, nine altars to the gods have been unearthed at Bewcastle; five dedicated to the Germanic war god Cocidius and one more to the romanised personification of this same god, Mars Cocidius, after which the fort was later to be named. Other gods were represented on a single altar to Mars Belatucadrus and two altars to Jupiter Best and Greatest. All of these inscriptions are reproduced and translated here.
|I O M DOLICHENO TEMPLVM A SOLO PRO SALVTE|
|"To Jupiter Best and Greatest of Dolichenus,¹ this temple (was built) from the foundations, for his well-being."|
|(RIB 992; altarstone)|
All of the altars recovered from the Bewcastle fort are dedicated to gods of a military nature; Jupiter Optimus Maximus was the king of the Roman pantheon; the Roman war god Mars, one of Jupiter's sons by Juno who was here worshipped in two of his Germanic manifestations Mars Belatucadrus and of course Mars Cocidius. Also represented was Hercules, a greek hero and mortal son of Jupiter by the Theban beauty Alcmena, who was elevated to a place among the gods after his death, and was often adopted as an idol by soldiers of many nations throughout the ancient world.
|DEO MARTI BELATVCADRO|
|"To the god Mars Belatucadrus."|
|(RIB 997.a; altarstone; JRS xlvii, 1957, p.228, no.11)|
|DEO SANCTO COCIDIO ANNIVS VICTOR CENTVR LEGIONIS E||"To the divine god Cocidius, Annius Victor, centurion of the legions, recalled to service.¹"||985|
|DEO COCIDIO||"To the god Cocidius."||986*|
|DEO DO COCDIO AVNTINVS F||"For the house of the god Cocidius, Auntinus made this."||987*|
|SANCTO COCIDEO AVRVNC FELICESSEMVS TRIBVN EX EVOCATO VSLM||"To the divine Cocidius, Aurunculus Felicessemus, tribune, former veteran, willingly and deservedly fulfilled his vow."||988|
|DEO SANCTO COCIDIO Q PELTRASIVS MAXIMVS TRIB EX CORNICVLARIO PRAEF PRAETORIO E M V VSLM||"To the divine god Cocidius, Quintus Peltrasius Maximus, tribune, former cornicularius² in the praetorian guard, most prominent man,³ willingly and deservedly fulfilled his vow."||989|
|DEO MARTI COCID SANCTO ALIVS VITALIANVS D D L M||"To the divine god Mars Cocidius, Aelius Vitalianus, presented and dedicated (this) willingly and deservedly."||993|
|* these two inscriptions are on silver plaques, both of which are illustrated on this page.|
To Cocidius at Netherby in Cumbria (RIB 966), to Cocidius at Chesterholm in Northumberland (RIB 1683), to Cocidius at Birdoswald in Cumbria (RIB 1872), to Cocidius and to Jupiter also at Birdoswald (RIB 1885; AD270-73), to Cocidius and Silvanus at Risingham in Northumberland (RIB 1207), to Mars Cocidius at Lancaster in Lancashire (RIB 602), to Vernostonus Cocidius at Ebchester in Durham (RIB 1102), to Cocidius and the Genius of the Stronghold (Genium Praesidi) at Housesteads on Hadrian's Wall in Northumberland (RIB 1577), to Cocidius and Silvanus also at Housesteads (RIB 1578), and to Jupiter, Cocidius and the Genium Loci at Housesteads (RIB 1583).
|From Mile Castle-37, between Housesteads and Greatchesters:|
|DEO COCIDIO VABRIVS VSLM||"To the god Cocidius, Vabrius willingly and deservedly fulfilled his vow."||1633|
|From the Wall between Birdowald and Castlesteads:|
|DEO COCIDIO MILITES LEG II AVG VSLM||"To the god Cocidius, the soldiers of the Second Augustan Legion, willingly and deservedly fulfilled their vow."||1955|
|DEO COCIDIO MILITES LEG XX V V VSLM APR...ET RVF COS||"To the god Cocidius, the soldiers of the Twentieth Legion, willingly and deservedly fulfilled their vow, when Apronius and Rufrius were consuls.¹"||1956|
|DEO COCIDIO VEXIL LEG VI VIC VSLM||"To the god Cocidius, a detachment of the Sixth Victorious Legion, willingly and deservedly fulfilled their vow"||1961|
|DEO COCIDIO ...||"To the god Cocidius, [...]"||1963|
|From the Castlesteads to Stanwix section of the Wall:|
|DEO MARTI COCIDIO .. MARTIVS > COH I BAT ET GENIO||"To the god Cocidius, and to the Genius (of this place), [...] Martius, centurion in the First Cohort of Batavians,² (set this up)."||2015|
|DEO COCIDIO MILITES LEG VI VIC P F||"For the god Cocidius, the soldiers of the Sixth Victorious Legion, Loyal and Faithful (made this)."||2020|
Aside from the Maiden Way Roman road the Bewcastle fort was also supplied with a communication link with the Hadrian's Wall fort at Birdoswald, in the form of a pair of signal-stations. There is a station just over 1¾ miles (3 km) to ENE at Barron's Pike, in direct line-of sight from the fort, from where signals could be exchanged with another station situated at Robin Hood's Butts. This second station lay about 2 miles (3.2 km) SSE of Bewcastle upon the Maiden Way but was not visible from the fort itself, it did, however, possess direct line-of-sight communication with the Wall fort. Any signals passed from Birdoswald northwards, would be relayed first via Robin Hood's Butt, then Barron's Pike, to Bewcastle; conversely, any south-bound messages would first have to be relayed to Baron's Pike then to The Butts before being sent to the Wall fort.