COLONIA [AVRELIA?] EBORACENSIVM
/ EBVRACVM

Roman Colony & Legionary Fortress

York, North Yorkshire

NGRef: SE603521
OSMap: LR105; Roman and Anglian York.
Type: Colonia, Legionary Fortress, 2 Marching Camps.
Map of York in 1851 by John Tallis: On this map, the outline of the mediaeval city wall can be seen quite clearly. These works incorporated the whole of the north-western circuit of the fortress, including the north-eastern wall (which was extended east up to the River Fosse), the northern corner-angle which encloses the great, gothic church of York Minster, the entire north-western wall, the western angle and a short length of the south-western defences were also preserved in the mediaeval city wall. On the opposite bank of the Ouse, the Roman Colonia is easily recognised by the rhomboid outline of its landward defences, being protected on the north-east by the river itself.
Roads
Iter I: NW (15) to ISVRIVM BRIGANTVM (Aldborough, North Yorkshire)
Itinera I/II/V: NE (17) to DERVENTIO (Malton, North Yorkshire) via Buttercrambe Moor
Itinera II/V/VIII: Ryknild Street: SW (10) to CALCARIA (Tadcaster, North Yorkshire)
Ermine Street: SE (28) to PETVARIA [PARISORVM] (Brough on Humber, Humberside)

York - A City Crammed with History

At the start of the campaign season of AD71 the new Roman governor of Britannia province, Petilius Cerialis, established a new fortress for the Ninth Hispanic Legion in the Vale of York to secure a firm base of operations for his planned campaign against the troublesome Brigantes tribe of northern England. York has been continually occupied ever since.

The six-figure Grid Reference given above, marks the centre of the Legionary Fortress which lay just to the north-west of the confluence of the River Fosse with the River Ouse, and was thus protected on the south and east by the aforementioned streams. The civil settlement and the later colonia grew on the south bank of the River Ouse alongside the road leading from the rear gateway of the fortress.

Eburacum - Evidence from the Geographies

The ancient name for York was Eburacum or Eboracum, and this name - or further variations of it - occurs in all four major classical geographies which cover Roman Britain.

In Ptolemy's Geography of the second century AD, York is listed among the nine towns attributed to the Brigantes tribe of northern Britain. Ptolemy wrote in Greek so the name of York in his work appears as ΕΒΩΡΑΚΟΝ or Eborakon. The entry occurs between OLENACVM (Elslack, Lancashire), and CAMBODVNVM (Slack, South Yorkshire). Ptolemy also tells us that the town was the home of the Sixth Legion at the time.

The town also appears in no less than four (out of fifteen) routes in the British section of the Antonine Itinerary, produced in the late 2nd century AD:

  • In Iter I - "from the 'Entrenchments' (i.e. Hadrian's Wall) to Praetorium (possibly Bridlington)", Eburacum is listed as the home of Leg. VI Victrix, 17 miles from the civitas capital of the Brigantes tribe, ISVRIVM BRIGANTVM (Aldborough, North Yorkshire), and 7 miles from DERVENTIO (Malton, North Yorkshire).
  • In Iter II - "from Hadrian's Wall to Portus Ritupis (Richborough, Kent)", Eburacum once more appears 17 miles from ISVRIVM, and this time 9 miles from CALCARIA (Tadcaster, North Yorkshire).
  • In Iter V - "the route from Londinium (London) to Luguvalium (Carlisle, Cumbria) on the Wall", Eburaco (sic) is listed 21 miles from LAGENTIVM (Castleford, South Yorkshire), and again 17 miles from ISVRIVM BRIGANTVM.
  • As the starting-point of Iter VIII - "The route from Eburacum to Londinium, two-hundred and twenty-seven thousand paces", with LAGENTIVM, the second on the itinerary, again reported as 21 miles distant, confirming the distance reported in Iter V.

In the Notitia Dignitatum of the late 4th century, the entry for York appears under the heading Sub dispositione uiri spectabilis ducis Britanniarum or 'At the disposal of the respectable man, the Duke of the Britains'. The full entry reads Praefectus Legionis Sextae or 'The Prefect of the Sixth Legion', which erroneously omits the actual name of the Legionary base. Interestingly, the second fort under the command of the Duke of the Britons is named Praesidium, which may tie in with the Praetorium in Iter I of the Antonine Itinerary, tentatively identified with Bridlington (vide supra).

York also appears in the Ravenna Cosmology of the seventh century (R&C#137), again as Eburacum, where it appears between the entries for CATARACTONIVM (Catterick, North Yorkshire) and PETVARIA (Brough on Humber, Humberside), the civitas capital of the Parisi tribe.

The Meaning of the Ancient British Name

Eburacum of the Romano-British Period

York's original Romano-British name Eburacum - later Colonia Eboracensium - is well documented, and several references are quoted throughout these web-pages. It may be interesting to digress for a while to study how the name has evolved over the many years since the Romans left Britain at the beginning of the fifth century.

Cair Hebrauc of the Dark Ages

York appears at the head of Nennius' list of 33 'British Towns' as Cair Hebrauc, which consists of two components; a mangled form of the town's Old British name, prefixed by the Celtic word cair meaning 'fortified place' (q.v. Welsh: caer, gaer).

Eofer-wic of the Anglian Kings of Northumbria

York features many times in the Saxon Chronicle, under a number of guises; Eofer-wic, Eofor-wic, Efer-wic, Euor-wic, Eofer-wic ceaster & Euer-wic, other variant spellings in other works include Eouerwic, Eouorwic, Euerwic & Eworwic. The somewhat variable prefix is likely an even more distorted carry-though of the Old British name, suffixed by the Scandinavian word vik meaning 'creek, river or bay', here Anglicised to -wic. The additional ceaster suffix is the Anglo-Saxon equivalent of the Celtic word cair used by Nennius.

Jorvik of the Viking Age of Danelaw

The modern name of York stems from its ninth-century Viking name Jorvik, which would appear to be a straight carry-through of the Anglic name Eoforwic, further distorted by the heavy accents of the Scandinavian occupying army. An alternate suggestion is that the prefix may be a Viking forename, but this is unlikely.

Eburacum - The Place of Yews

"York Eborakon c.150, Eboracum, Euruic 1086 (DB). An ancient Celtic name meaning 'estate of a man called Eburos' or (more probably) 'yew-tree estate'. Yorkshire (OE scir 'district') is first referred to in the 11th cent."
Entry from the Oxford Dictionary of English Place-Names by A.D. Mills.

The above statement by Mills is very difficult to reconcile with any of the relevant names for the Yew tree. The Latin name for yew is Taxus baccata, the modern English name stems from the Saxon iw, also the Germanic iwa and Scandinavian yr; also compare Welsh ywen. A possible clue lies in the modern German name for the tree, Eibe.

Anyone out there got a spare copy of Placenames of Roman Britain by Rivet and Smith? An extortionist posing as a bookseller quoted the outrageous price of 75 the last time I asked, and there's no way I can afford that! - Er, ... while you're about it, Magary's Roman Roads in Britain would come in handy as well. As always, the list is long, the means sparse!

Entries in the Roman Inscriptions of Britain

For York, there are over seventy inscriptions on stone recorded in the Roman Inscriptions of Britain (RIB), six of which have been added since the work was first published. These entries may be broken down as follows:

21 altarstones (inc. 7 of non-standard form),
24 tombstones (inc. 1 tomb finial), 9 coffins
(inc. 1 sarcophagus), 1 statue, 1 statue base,
1 lead cannister, 1 inscribed gold leaf, 1 base,
1 relief, 6 building inscriptions and 5 undefined.

A selection of the most interesting RIB entries are reproduced and translated on this page, the most important of which are those that can be accurately dated. Unfortunately, despite the apparent profusion of textual data only three dateable stones exist: RIB 665 (vide infra) dated to AD107-8, the fragmentary RIB 666 (not shown), evidently dedicated to the emperor Hadrian and therefore dateable to between AD117-38, also the building inscription RIB 667 (vide infra etiam) which dates sometime between AD211-35.

Legionary Units Stationed at York

The only units known to be permanently stationed in the Legionary fortress at Eburacum were Legio IX Hispana, themselves responsible for the original fortifications c.AD70-71, also Legio VI Victrix who accompanied the emperor Hadrian on his trip to Britain and replaced the Ninth at York during AD122. The Sixth were to occupy the Eburacum fortress for the remainder of Roman military rule in the islands.

Legio Nonae Hispana - The Ninth Spanish Legion

There are only four inscribed stones from York which attest the presence of this legion, including the tombstones of a standard-bearer and an ordinary soldier. The most interesting is R.I.B. 665 (see below), which is one of only three inscribed Roman stones from Eburacum that can be dated, and the only one dateable to within a couple of years, in this case AD107-8.

Building Inscription from the South-East Gateway of the Fortress

IMP CAESAR DIVI NERVAE FIL NERVA TRAIANVS AVG GERM DACICVS PONTIFEX MAXIMVS TRIBVNICIAE POTESTATIS XII IMP VI COS V P P PORTAM PER LEG VIIII HISP FECIT
"For the Imperator Caesar Nerva Trajanus Augustus Germanicus Dacicus,¹ son of the Divine Nerva, High Priest, [having received] tribunician powers twelve times,² hailed Imperator six times, consul five times, Father of the Fatherland,³ the gates throughout (this fortress) were made by the Ninth Hispanic Legion."
(RIB 665; restored building inscription; dated AD107-8)
  1. Trajan, emperor AD98-117; titles Germanicus added Oct. 97, Dacicus in 102.
  2. Trajan recieved tribunicia potestas for the first time on his adoption in Oct. 97, renewed on 10th Dec. 97, thereafter annually on 10th Dec. This narrows the date of the inscription to between AD107-8.
  3. Trajan was hailed Imperator once on his accession in 98, three times in 102-3, twice in 105-6, and seven times between 113-117; he was Consul six times altogether; in 91, 98, 100, 101, 103 and 112; he received the title Pater Patriae in 98.

Altar to Silvanus by a Cornicularius of the Ninth Legion

DEO SANCTO SILVANO S L CELERINIVS VITALIS CORNI LEG VIIII HIS V S L L M ET DONVM HOC DONVM ADPERTINIAT CAVTVM ATTIGGAM
"To the sacred god Silvanus,¹ salutations! Lucius Celerinius Vitalis, Cornicularius² of the Ninth Hispanic Legion, willingly, gladly and deservedly fulfilled his vow, and donates this offering in order that a cautious steadfastness may be achieved."
(RIB 659; altarstone)
  1. Latin god of herdsmen, woodland and the open field.
  2. Chief clerk of the Legion; see Roman Military Glossary.

Tombstone of a Signifer of the Ninth Legion

L DVCCIVS L VOLT RVFINVS VIEN SIGNIF LEG VIIII AN XXIIX H S E
"Lucius Duccius Volturius Rufinus, son of Lucius, from Vienne,¹ Signifer² of the Ninth Hispanic Legion, aged twenty-eight, he lies here."
(RIB 673; tombstone)
  1. In the Lyonnais region of southern France, south of Lyons on the Rhône.
  2. Standard bearer; see Roman Military Glossary.

Legio Sextae Victrix - The Sixth Victorious Legion

Altar from the Temple of Serapis by a Legatus of the Sixth Legion

DEO SANCTO SERAPI TEMPLVM A SOLO FECIT CL HIERONYMIANVS LEG LEG VI VIC
"To the sacred god Serapis,¹ Claudius Hieronymianus, Legate of the Sixth Victorious Legion, erected this shrine from the ground [up]."
(RIB 658; altarstone)
  1. Serapis was another name for Osiris, the Judge of the Underworld in the Egyptian pantheon, whose wife was Isis, the Giver of Death. It is thought that sacrifices were made to these dark gods in order to avoid incurring their wrath.

There are nine inscriptions on stone which testify to this Legion's presence at York, including 2 altars, a building inscription and several tombstones and coffins. None may be dated accurately from the text content, but on stylistic grounds the stones vary from the early second century to the late fourth.

Tombstone of a Veteran of the Sixth Legion

D M L BEBIVS AVG CRESCENS VINMIL LEG VI VIC P F AN XLIII STIP XXIII H A F C
"To the spirits of the departed and Lucius Baebius, attainer of the distinction of Augustale,¹ veteran soldier of the Victorious Sixth Legion, Loyal and Faithful,² who lived forty-three years with twenty-three years service. His heirs and his friends are responsible for the making [of this memorial]."
(RIB 671; tombstone)
  1. A member of the priesthood devoted to the divinity of the emperor. A very select company.
  2. The Sixth were possibly awarded the title Pia Fidelis for service under Severus during his British campaigns between 208-212. It is quite possible that Baebius was awarded his priesthood during this same period.

Tombstone of a Prefect from the Sixth Legion

D M ANT GARGILIANI EQ PVBLEX PRAEF LEG VI V AN LVI M VI CLA FLORENTINVS DEC GENER EIVS
"To the spirits of the departed and Antoninus Gargilianus, holder of the public horse,¹ prefect of the Sixth Victorious Legion, who lived fifty-six years and six months. His son-in-law the decurion² Claudius Florentinus [set this up]."
(RIB 707c; coffin; Britannia I (1970), p.308, no.14)
  1. i.e. a member of the order of knights.
  2. This word is used to describe a commander of a troop of auxiliary cavalry and is also the title of a member of the elected board of ten men who administrated the Roman Colonia; given the high status of a Legionary Prefect and the stratification of Roman society based on personal wealth, Gargilianus would not be inclined to waste his daughter on a mere troop commander, thus it is far more likely that Florentinus belonged to the second category.

Altar to the Matres Afrae Italae et Gallae by a Gubernator of the Sixth

MAT AF ITA GA M MINV AVDE MIL LEG VI VIC GVBER LEG VI V S L L M
"To the Mother Goddesses of Africa, Italy and Gaul,¹ Marcus Minucius Audens, soldier and gubernator² of the Sixth Victorious Legion, willingly, gladly and deservedly fulfilled his vow."
(RIB 653; altarstone)
  1. The inscription is expanded: MAT[res] AF[rae] ITA[lae et] GA[llae].
  2. 'helmsman, river-pilot'; see explanatory paragraph below.

With reference to the above inscription, the title gubernator is often translated as 'governor', meaning one who controls the 'ship of state' but in this case its useage is more elementary. Minucius was probably detached from the British Fleet or Classis Britannia, and assigned to the Sixth Legion at York as a river-pilot, with duties stretching along the rivers Ouse and Humber, possibly also the Trent to some extent. Tacitus (Hist. IV, 16) implies a rank equivalent to a centurion.

The Gods of Roman York

Altar to the Genio Eboraci

NVM AVG ET GEN EBOR
"To the Spirit of the Emperor and the Genius of Eboracum¹."
(RIB 657; altarstone)
  1. The genius was a minor deity or spirit associated with the physical well-being of a specific location or object; in this case, the town of York.

There have been over twenty altars to the gods recovered over the years from the town and fortress of Eburacum. In many cases a god is mentioned on a single stone, and only two gods from the classical pantheon are represented by more than one altar, namely Mars with three and Fortuna, having two dedicated solely to herself, sharing another with Bona Eventui.

Altar to Fortuna by the wife of a Legatus Legionis Augusti

DEAE FORTVNAE SOSIA IVNCINA Q ANTONI ISAVRICI LEG AVG
"To the goddess Fortune, Sosia Juncina [the wife of] Quintus Antonius Isauricus, [Legionary] Legate of the Emperor [dedicates this]."
(RIB 644; altarstone)

There are two altars to the Numinubus Augusti or the 'living spirit of the emperor', also five to the genius loci or the 'spirit of this place', including one shared with Neptune, and one dedicated both to the Emperor's spirit and to the spirit of York itself (Vide supra).

Altar to Arciacon and the Numinibus Augusti by an Ordinarius

DEO ARCIACON ET N AVGST MAT... VITALIS ORD VSLM
"To the god Arciacon¹ and the Spirit of the Emperor, Mat[...] Vitalis, Ordinarius,² willingly and deservedly fulfilled his vow."
(RIB 640; altarstone)
  1. Possibly an unknown Celtic or Germanic deity, though there is evidence to suggest that this may have been one of the guises of Mercury, the messenger of the gods (vide RIB 1123 at Corbridge).
  2. An officer-trainee drawing a regular soldier's pay, on the staff of the centurion; see Roman Military Glossary.

Dedications to single gods include the classical deities: Hercules, Jupiter Optimus Maximus, Mercury, Silvanus and Veterus, also Serapis from the Egyptian pantheon, and Britannia herself.

Altar or Statue Base Dedicated to Britannia by an Imperial Freedman

BRITANNIAE SANCTAE P NIKOMEDES AVGG NN LIBERTVS
"To Sacred Britannia. Placed by Nikomedes, freedman of our Emperors."
(RIB 643; statue or altar base)

Altar to the Matribus Domesticus

G IVLIVS CRESCENS MATRIBVS DOMESTICIS V S M L
"Gaius Julius Crescens, to the Mother Goddesses of the Home, willingly and deservedly fulfilled his vow."
(RIB 652; altarstone)

The Civilian Inhabitants

Coffin of a Decurion of Colonia Eboracensis

D M FLAVI BELLATORIS DEC COL EBORACENSIS VIXIT ANNIS XXVIIII MENSIB... ...II ... II ...
"To the spirits of the departed and Flavius Bellatoris, Decurion¹ of the Colonia of Eburacum, who lived twenty-nine years ... months [and] two [days] ..."
(RIB 674; coffin)
  1. A member of an elected board of ten men, who saw to the administration of the Roman colony at York.

Evidence for the names of civilians in Roman towns comes mainly from tombstones, but at York several stone coffins and sarcophagi bearing Roman inscriptions have also been unearthed. Some of the most interesting, and touching, examples are reproduced and translated below.

Coffin of a Child Aged Ten Months

D M SIMPLICIAE FLORENTINE ANIME INNOCENTISSIME QVE VIXIT MENSES DECEM FELICIVS SIMPLEX PATER FECIT LEG VI V
"To the spirits of the departed and Simplicia Florentina, a most innocent being, who lived ten months, [her] father Felicius Simplex of Legio VI Victrix set this up."
(RIB 690; coffin)

Coffin of a Centurion of the Sixth Legion

D M AVR SVPERO CENT LEG VI QVI VIXIT ANIS XXXVIII M IIII D XIII AVRELIA CENSORINA COIVNX MEMORIAM POSSVIT
"To the spirits of the departed and Aurelius Supero, Centurion of the Sixth Legion, who lived thirty-eight years four months and thirteen days, Aurelia Censorina his wife, set this up in his memory."
(RIB 670; coffin)

Lead Funerary Urn of a Twenty-Three Year Old Woman

D M VLPIAE FELICISSIMAE QVAE VIXIT ANNIS XXIII MENSES XI DIES ... POSVERVNT VLPIVS FELIX ET ... ANDRONICA PARENTES
"To the spirits of the departed and Ulpia Felicissima, who lived twenty-three years eleven months and [...] days, Ulpius Felix and [...] Andronica her parents have placed this."
(RIB 691; lead canister)

Tombstone of a Mother and Daughter

D M IVLIE BRICE AN XXXI SEPRONIE MARTINE AN VI SEPRONIVS MARTINVS F C
"To the spirits of the departed and Julia Brice aged thirty-one years, [and to] Sepronia Martine aged six years, Sepronius Martinus set this up."
(RIB 686; tombstone)

Tombstone of the Entire Family of a Veteran of the Sixth Legion

D M FLAVIAE AVGVSTINAE VIXIT AN XXXVIIII M VII D XI FILIVS SAENIVS AVGSTINVS VIXIT AN I D III ...A VIXIT AN I M VIIII D V G AERESIVS SAENVS VET LEG VI VIC CONIVGI CARISSIMAE ET SIBI F C
"To the spirits of the departed and Flavia Augustina who lived thirty-nine years seven months and eleven days, a son Saenius Augustinus who lived one year and three days [and a daughter] Augustina? who lived one year nine months and five days, Gaius Aeresius Saenus, veteran of the Sixth Victorious Legion, set this up for his dearest wife and family."
(RIB 685; tombstone)

Demetrius of Tarsus

Votive Offering to Oceanus and Tethys by Demetrius

ΩΚΕΑΝΟΙ ΚΑΙ ΤΗΘΥΙ ΔΕΜΗΤΡΙΟΣ
OKEANOI KAI TETHUI DEMETRIOS
"To Oceanus and Tethys,² Demetrius [dedicates this]."
(RIB 663; bronze plate; in Greek)
  1. Both of these deities are Titans, brother and sister, two from a total of twelve siblings born of Uranus and Gaea. They married and were to produce all of the world's rivers and streams, known as 'the three-thousand sons of Okeanos', also the oceanides, their many daughters who inhabited all the depths and shallows of the worlds seas.

Two bronze votive plates, RIB 662 (below) and 663 (above), both dedicated by someone named Demetrius and found close together at York, may be connected to the Demetrius of Tarsus mentioned by Plutarch (Moralia 419e), who tells of his expedition by boat to some of the more remote British islands on the instructions of the emperor Vespasian. It is possible that Demetrius' mission may have been reconnaissance in aid of the governor Gnaeus Julius Agricola, which would place these two inscriptions in the last Quarter of the first century A.D., therefore among the earliest at York.

Another Bronze Votive Plate Dedicated by Demetrius

THEOIS TOIS TOU HEGEMONIKOU PRAITORION SCRIBONIOS DEMETRIOS
"To the gods of the governor's headquarters, Scribonius Demetrius [dedicates this]."
(RIB 662; bronze plate, in Greek; translation from Ireland, 1986)

Pre-Legionary Military Presence at Eburacum

Among the many different varieties of Roman pottery uncovered at York are several pieces of Lyon ware attributable to the Claudian-Neronian period, which suggests the existence of an earlier auxiliary fort lying undiscovered perhaps beneath the later fortress which was established in AD71. This suspected fort - if it does exist - may date to the administration of governor Vettius Bolanus in 69 or 70, though may conceiveably belong to either of his immediate predecessors.

Production of these types of wares ceased at Lugdunum in southern Gaul during the Civil War of AD69 when the factories were appropriated for military use and production concentrated in other areas. The Eburacum finds may, however, represent surplus stocks of old samian-ware which were moved north with the Ninth Legion from Lincoln.

Legionary Movements in the late First Century

After the fourteenth legion had been suddenly removed from Britain by Nero in AD67, the province was left severely under-strength throughout the next three years. The tyranny of the emperor had been ended by his condemnation by the Senate and his subsequent forced suicide in AD68 and he was replaced by a new emperor elected by the Senate, the inflexible Galba, then governor of Hispana province. The murder of Galba in January AD69 triggered a year of civil war on the continent which ended in December with the appointment of Vespasian, then governor of Judaea as princeps. One of Vespasians first acts on his arrival in Rome was to appoint a new governor for Britain, the able commander Petilius Cerialis, who had recently put down a revolt of Batavian auxiliaries under Julius Civilis in Germany. By the time the new governor had arrived in Britannia with the newly-formed Legio II Adiutrix, the military situation in the province had degenerated and the powerful Brigantes tribe who inhabited almost the entire north of England were threatening their more Romanised neighbours, the Coritani of Lincolnshire and the Cornovii in Staffordshire and Cheshire.

Roman Legionary Bath-House
The York Legionary Bathhouse
Lies beneath the Roman Bath Inn
in St. Samson's Square.

The first act of the new governor when he entered the province, possibly in the winter of AD70-71, was to leave the Second Adiutrix at Lindum (Lincoln), and proceed with Legio IX Hispana deep into the Vale of York to build a new legionary fortress just north of the confluence of the River Fosse with the River Ouse. His reasons for taking the Ninth Hispana instead of the Second Adiutrix were primarily because the Second was decidedly inferior in field experience, having been only recently recruited during the civil wars of AD69 from veterans of the asiatic fleet, but also because the Ninth was Cerialis' old legion with which he had spent his earlier time in Britain as Legionary Legate; a force he could trust, where the centurions already knew him and he probably knew each of them by name.

By the end of the first century, there were three permanent legions stationed in Britain; Legio XX Valeria Victrix at Deva (Chester), Legio II Augusta at Isca Silurum (Caerleon) and Legio IX Hispana at Eburacum (York). This was to remain the military situation in Britain for almost the whole of the second century, and for this reason, the associated civil settlement or canabae outside each of these fortresses became respectably-sized towns.

For further information of legionary movements in Britain during AD67-70 see the RBO entry for Glevum. Further information on the career of Petilius Cerialis can also be found in the RBO page(s) on the Roman Governors of Britain, in particular the Cerialis page.

The Legionary Fortress and its Canabae

The defences ot the original fortress constructed during Cerealis' early campaigns against the Brigantes, consisted of a single ditch and rampart, surmounted by a timber palisade with wooden interval and corner towers, the area enclosed by these fortifications was some fifty acres.

The fortress had its exterior defences and its principal buildings replaced in stone by the Ninth legion Hispana during the reign of the emperor Trajan in either late AD107 or AD108, prior to this date the interior buildings were of timber and tile construction. This is the last recorded action of the Ninth legion in Britain, indeed, after this date there is no record of this legion anywhere, other than legionary tiles bearing the legion's stamp unearthed at Nijmegen in Holland, and dated to the early second century.

In AD122 the emperor Hadrian almost certainly visited Eburacum on his way north to plan the construction of his lasting monument in Britain, the line of fortifications which were to become known as Hadrian's Wall. He brought with him Legio VI Victrix who were to replace the Ninth Hispana at York.

The canabae of the fortress at Eburacum lay across the River Ouse on its opposite south-western bank, the main road which issued from the south gate of the fortress crossed the nearby Ouse via a bridge constructed from 'masses of the strongest stone-work', and proceeded in a straight line towards the south-west through the middle of the settlement. Following the arrival of the Sixth Legion at York the settlement grew in prosperity and the appointment of its buildings became of a higher standard. Towards the end of the second century growth was rapid, many public buildings and monuments were erected and large private dwellings appeared over terraces on the steep slopes above the River Ouse to the south-east.

When Hadrian's wall was first overrun by the Scottish tribes following the withdrawal of the British garisson by Albinus at the end of the second century, the fortress at Eburacum remained unscathed; at least, no evidence of any damage has been found which can be positively attributed to this period in history.

Eboracum - Capital City of Britannia Inferior

Under the emperor Septimius Severus in AD197 the province of Britannia was split into two, outwardly for administrative purposes, but also to avoid the concentration of British legionary power into the hands of a single governor. This situation had occurred earlier that same year with his own trusted general and adopted heir Decimus Clodius Albinus who had removed the British legions and marched upon Rome, to be defeated in battle near Lugdunum (Lyons) in southern France by Caracalla, the elder son of the emperor's wife. The peaceful and Romanised southern tribes of Britain and the long-pacified tribes of Wales were amalgamated to become the Consular province of Britannia Superior with two legions based at Isca (Caerleon) and Deva (Chester), and administrative capital at Londinium, whilst the troublesome north, which required a more militaristic Praetorian governor, had a single legion but the bulk of Britains auxiliary forces (garissoned along the wall), became Britannia Inferior and was to be administrated from Eburacum where the legionary force was also based.

Emperor Septimius Severus at York

"He died at Eboracum in Britain, having subdued the tribes which appeared hostile to Britain, in the eighteenth year of his reign [AD212], stricken by a very grave illness, now an old man."
Extract from The Augustan History - Severus by Aelius Spartianus, translated by Anthony Birley.

In the winter of AD208/9 the emperor Septimus Severus arrived in Britain with a substantial force of legionary, praetorian and auxiliary cohorts after being called upon by the governor of the northern province who was worried by increasing violence of the Caledonian tribes. Accompanied by his imposing and formidable wife Julia Domna and his two sons Geta and Caracalla, Severus made Eburacum his base of operations for his planned campaigns into Scotland. Leaving his younger, natural son Geta behind at Eburacum to continue the imperial business, Severus took his elder adopted son Caracalla on campaign with him and is thought to have constructed the large camp at Carpow on Tayside during the summer of AD209. The campaign ended with the surrender of the Caledonians and the imperial family spent the following winter at Eburacum; the fortress walls being apparently reconstructed during this era. In the summer of AD210 the Maeatae, another major Scottish tribe revolted. The climate in Britain seems to have been too much for the aging emperor however, and he was too ill to lead the campaign himself, sending Caracalla in his stead with orders to be absolutely merciless. These orders were carried out with relish by the bloodthirsty prince but remained unfinished as the weather conditions worsened and Caracalla was forced to winter with his army at the Carpow fortress. The emperor's health deteriorated during the winter and he died on Febuary 4th AD211 while in residence at York. The imperial family left for Rome in the spring, carrying with them the body of Severus. Geta was murdered by his elder brother the following year.

The Domus Palatini at Eburacum

The actual location of the domus palatini or imperial residence at Eburacum, implied in the biography of Severus from the Augustan Histories, remains unproven. The remains of a large bath-house, one of the biggest in Britain, were recorded on the site of the Old Station Yard in York during construction work in 1929. Lying on the north-western side of the main Roman road through the original canabae settlement and aligned with it, these substantial buildings presumably preceeded the formation of the colonia and lay on a different alignment from the street-grid imposed during the associated reorganisation of the town. The argument has been made on these grounds that the bath-buildings may have been part of the imperial residence of Severus.

The Roman Colonia

Building Inscription Dedicated to Caracalla

IMP CAES M AVR
"Imperator Caesar Marcus Aurelius¹"
(RIB 667; building inscription)
  1. The first four names of the emperors Caracalla (imp. AD211-217), Elagabalus (AD218-222) and Alexander Severus (AD222-235). The stone may thus be dated within the reigns of these three emperors. The most favoured period would be the earlier reign of Caracalla, who is known to have resided at Eburacum with his father Severus.

The civil settlement at Eburacum was promoted to the rank of colonia, the highest legal status a Roman town could attain, probably during the career of Caracalla (AD198-217). The exact date is not known, although Aurelius Victor describes Eburacum as a municipium when Severus died there in AD211, while an inscribed altar from Bordeaux dedicated in AD237 by one Marcus Aurelius Lunaris, confirms its status as a colonia by that date.

Emperor's Constantius and Constantine at York

"Constantius died at Eboracum in Britain in the thirteenth year of his reign, and was deified. ..."
"On the Death of Constantius, Constantine, his son by a somewhat undistinguished marriage, was made emperor in Britain, and succeeded to his father's position as a very popular ruler. ..."
Above extracts from the Breviarium of Eutropius (X.1.3 & X.2.2)
Statue of Constantine outside York Minster
Constantine the Great
A modern statue outside
the south transept of the
Minster, in Minster Yard.

On 25th of July AD306 the emperor Constantius died at York; his son Constantine was proclaimed emperor by the men of Legio VI Victrix, then stationed at Eburacum, perhaps instigated by the German noble Crocus, who was commander of an auxiliary regiment of Alamanni then serving in Britain. This was in direct opposition to the legislation of Diocletian which had been formulated to prevent blood-line succession, and in accordance with Diocletian's new laws Maxentius was proclaimed princeps by the senate in Rome. This resulted in a period of civil war for the control of the Roman world which ended with the partition of the empire by Constantine in AD313.

Constantine invested a great deal in the refortification of the legionary fortress at Eburacum. The walls were extensively rebuilt, and the south-western wall fronted by the River Ouse was adorned with massive multangular bastions which must have looked especially imposing from the site of the colonia on the opposite bank. It is possible that the lavish refurbishment of many of the colonia's public buildings was also undertaken by Constantine, but date evidence is lacking, and the building may have been started during his father's stay at York.

It is interesting to note that at the Council of Arles in AD314, Britain was represented by three Bishops of the Christian church; Eborius of York, Restitutus of London and Adelphius of Lincoln, together with an unnamed priest and deacon who may have been the representatives of a fourth Bishopric.

Other Roman Sites in the Area

A number of Roman marching camps have been recorded over the years at Bootham Stray just outside the northern suburbs of York.

Later History of York

Saxon Church of St. Peter built by King Edwin

"A.D. 626. ... This year Eanflæd, the daughter of king Edwin, was baptized, on the holy eve of Pentecost. And the king, within twelve months was baptized, at Easter, with all his people. Easter was then on the twelfth of April. This was done at Eoferwic,¹ where he had ordered a church to be built of timber, which was hallowed in the name of St. Peter. There the king gave the bishopric to Paulinus; and there he afterwards ordered a larger church to be built of stone. ..."
Extract from The Saxon Chronicle translated by Reverend J. Ingram.
  1. York. See The Meaning of the Ancient British Name above.

The Minster of Saint Peter

The choir of York Minster
The Choir of York Minster
View of the eastern end
- the choir - of the Minster.
The window is the size of
a standard tennis court.

Built on the site of the earlier Anglian church of St. Peter and the later Norman cathedral which replaced it c. AD1180, the oldest parts of York Minster nowadays visible above ground are the transepts, which were built during the administration of archbishop Walter de Gray whose body lies in the south transept. The slightly newer north transept was completed around 1255, and houses the five mediaeval lancet windows known as the Five Sisters, which are each 5 feet wide, 53 feet high, and made of greyish-white 'grisaille' glass from the medieval period. The south transept sports a large Rose Window set somewhat high-up, which was shattered into 40,00 pieces during a disastrous fire in 1984, caused by a lightning strike.

The nave at the west end of the Norman church was rebuilt in the Decorated style, a little wider and somewhat longer. Work started around 1291 and the west-front was completed in 1345, having taken over 50 years to build. The large central window was glazed in 1338, and incorporates a heart-like motif in the stonework which has earned the nickname 'The Heart of Yorkshire'. The nave measures 48 feet between its twelve-shafted pillars, and is 93 feet high. The roof of the nave dates only to 1840, the original having been destroyed by an accidental fire.

The Great East Window of York Minster
The Great East Window
View from within the choir
towards the High Altar and
the Lady Chapel beyond.

The chapter-house attached to the north transept is 58 feet across and the roof, of wood carved and painted to imitate stone, was completed in 1342. Rebuilding work on the choir was started in 1361 the east window being surpassed in size only by that of Gloucester, and glazed by John Thornton of Coventry between 1405 and 1408. The roof of the choir is again a copy of the original of painted wood, which was destroyed by a madman in 1829.

The central tower, of perpendicular design and the largest in floor area in all of England, was built during the first quarter of the fifteenth century, following the completion of the choir, and is 180 feet high. Unlike the rest of the minster, the tower has a stone-vaulted ceiling which underwent major renovation during the 1970's. There is more mediaeval stained glass in York Minster than in any other church in Britain, although the majority of it is not of exceptional quality.

York circa 1855

"York is 199 miles from London; its population is 28,842. This city in Yorkshire stands on Watling Street,¹ on the River Ouse at the influx of the Fosse, and at a divergence of railways in five directions. It was a centre of Roman roads, coming to it in five directions; it is now a centre of railway communication, from London to Edinburgh, and from coast to coast; it commands sea-ward navigation by the Ouse, and a very extensive inland navigation through the Ouse's connections.
 
The city's structure, till about the commencement of the present century, was remarkably antique and singular; and, notwithstanding numerous and sweeping changes which have been made upon it, still presents a striking mixture of ancient features with modern ones.
 
A general weekly market is held on Saturday, a cattle market on alternate Tuesdays; a wool market on every Thursday from Lady-day to Michaelmas; a leather market on the first Wednesday of March, June, September and December; fairs on Whit-Monday, July 10th, August 12th, and November 23rd; and a horse show, during the entire week before Christmas.
 
Commerce has never been so extensive as the facilities for export might have made it, and is now less than formerly. A considerable trade is done in drugs, tea, coffee, and confectionery. The general retail trade is very large. The manufacture of linens was at one time flourishing, but fell away. The making of combs, gloves, shoes, saddlery, and glass is considerable, and there are roperies, tanneries, breweries,² and large foundries.
 
The police force, in 1864, comprised 40 men, at an annual cost of 2,592. The crimes committed, in 1863, were 82; the persons apprehended, 78."
Above text accompanies later editions of John Tallis' map of York c.1855
  1. Untrue! Watling Steet runs north-west from the Kentish coast through Canterbury and London to Lichfield in the Midlands, turning abruptly due west to Wroxeter on the Severn, whereupon it runs almost due south through Leintwardine and Kenchester to the the legionary fortresses at Usk and Caerleon on the south Welsh coast.
  2. Good to hear!

Thinking of Visiting York?

The following places are the personal recommendations of the RBO web-master Togodumnus, who accepts no responsibily for any headaches caused by patronage of either of the two historic sites at the bottom of this list.

East Angle Tower of the Roman Legionary Fortress

Unfortunately, the pictures I took of this place were complete kak!

Roman Pillar from the Praetorium of the Fortress

The Praetorium Column repositioned in Minster Yard
Column of the Praetorium
Now re-positioned in Minster
Yard opposite the new statue
of Constantine the Great.

The headquarters building or praetorium which stood at the centre of the Roman legionary fortress at York, was demolished at the beginning of the ninth century and subsequently used as a graveyard attached to St. Peter's Church, the Anglian precursor of the great Medieval Minster. Excavations conducted in Minster Yard in 1969, on the suspected site of the Anglian church unearthed instead a number of Anglian burials and one of the collonade columns from the Roman praetorium building. The column was re-erected in 1971 on the east side of Minster Yard, and now stands 25 feet (7.6 metres) high.

Multangular Tower, Legionary Interval Tower and the Anglian Tower

The Multangular Tower
From the Museum Gardens.

Accessed from the beautiful grounds of Yorkshire Museum behind the Lodge on Museum Street, the impressive westernmost Multangular Corner Tower dates from the early fourth century, being built during the campaigns of Constantius Chlorus against the Picts in Scotland. Behind this large defensive work, at the rear of York Library but accessed from Museum Gardens through a postern gate in the north-western wall, are the remains of an interval tower from the original fortress built by the Ninth Legion over two-hundred years previously. Close to this are the somewhat more substantial ruins of the Anglian Tower, which was presumably built to repair a breach in the original Roman wall sometime during the 6th-8th centuries. This was subsequently buried beneath an earthen embankment after the capture of Jorvik by the Vikings AD866. There is an interesting display to the north of the tower complex which shows the successive levels of the city's defences over the ages.

The Medieval City Walls

The Medieval City Walls
The North-Eastern City Wall
The original fortress wall lies deep
beneath this visible section, which
dates merely to the Middle Ages.

Almost all of the city wall to be seen in modern York dates to the Medieval period. In general, these later defences were built immediately upon the ramparts of the former legionary fortress, following their line, and apart from the sites mentioned above, there are no visible Roman remains above ground-level.

There are many walks along various parts of the Medieval city walls, all of which are highly recommended, not only those which happen to overlook the Roman sites. The grassy embankments which front many of the existing stretches of city wall date only to the Viking times, and are reputedly very beautiful in the springtime, by dint of their being extensively planted with daffodils.


Notable Watering Houses in York

The Roman Bath Inn

The Roman Bath Inn, Samson Square, York
-rating: The very first 10/10!
Proprietors: ?; landlord Terry Osborne?
Opening Times: All day, every day.?
Beer: John Smiths, Caffrey's and Worthington.
Food: Children's menu. Fair selection of meals and sarnies from 2.20 to 5.25 (2001 prices).
Accommodation: Bed & Breakfast. 4 rooms; 2 double, 2 twin. [60/room/night; plus 10 deposit (Aug. 2001)].
Comments: Kids allowed in certain areas. Live music or karaoke most nights. Cor blimey! Get yerself down there.
Visit the Roman Bath Inn page at www.Roman-Britain.org
The Roman Bath Inn - Viewed from St. Samson's Square
Click Here to Visit the Roman Bath Inn

Ye Olde Starre Inne

Ye Olde Starre Inne[-rating 9/10.]
Proprietors: ?
Opening Times: ?
Beer: Theakstons Best, Old Peculiar, XB & John Smith's Magnet Ale.
Food: Food served every day between 11:30 and 19:00. Good Chalkboard menu, separate Children's Menu.
Comments: Children welcome before 6 p.m., but not in the bar area.
1525 Edward VI restricted the number of inns in York to eight. It is probable the Starre was one of the eight.
1644 During the siege of York the roundheads used the inn as a billet hospital & morgue, much to the chagrin of the innkeeper, William Foster a staunch royalist.
1662 Tomas Wyville purchased Ye Olde Starre Inne for 250.
1792 The landlord Thomas Bulmer erected the sign which spans Stonegate, having to pay the owner of the opposite building five shillings rent. The monies though had to be spent in the company of both parties.
1803 William Knapton purchased the Starre for 850.

The Starre is the oldest licenced pub in York, though not the oldest building used as a pub. Built sometime during the 1500's, the inn was occupied by parliamentary forces throughout the Siege of York during the English Civil War in 1644. The original rent for the advertising banner across Stonegate was five shillings a year, which was paid to the owner of the building opposite on the proviso that the monies were to be spent in the Starre Inne. The text on the left is reproduced verbatim from the notice-board in the alleyway leading to the pub.

Bibliography and References

See: The Towns of Roman Britain by John Wacher (2nd Ed., BCA, London, 1995) pp.167-188 & fig.73;
Chronicle of the Roman Emperors by Chris Scarre (Thames & Hudson, London, 1995);
Chronology of the Ancient World by E.J. Bickerman (Thames & Hudson, London, 1980);
Temples in Roman Britain by M.J.T. Lewis (Cambridge 1966);
The Saxon Chronicle - AD 1 to AD 1154 translated by Reverend J. Ingram (1823).
The Romans in Britain - An Anthology of Inscriptions by A.R. Burn (Blackwell, Oxford, 1969);
Roman Britain - A Sourcebook by S. Ireland (Routlege, New York, 1986);
The Roman Inscriptions of Britain by R.G. Collingwood and R.P. Wright (Oxford 1965);
All English translations, including any inherent mistakes, are my own.

Eburacum Related Links

York Archaeological Trust for Excavation and Research Ltd. Superlative site on York archaeology of all ages. Brill! Includes the following site:
Roman York (Eboracum) - c. AD 71 - c. 400 Check out the aerial reconstructional painting of Eburacum on this page. Primo!

Jorvik Viking Centre Choose from Flash-Grafiks or HTML versions of this Ace site.
Roman York The usual brief from the Britain Express bunch.
The Cavalier Hotel

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