Type: Legionary Fortress, Fort, Major Settlement.
Iter XII: NW (10) to GOBANNIVM (Abergavenny, Gwent)|
Iter XIII: NE (11) to BLESTIVM (Monmouth, Gwent)
Itinera XII/XIII: S (6) to ISCA SILVRVM (Caerleon, Gwent)
"More toward the east¹ are the Silures² whose town is Bullaeum 16*50 55°00"
Aside from the entry above, from Ptolemy's Geography of the early-second century AD, Usk is mentioned in two separate road lists in the Antonine Itinerary of the late-second century. In Iter XII "The route from Moridunum (Carmarthen, Dyfed) to Viroconium (Wroxeter, Shropshire)", Usk appears as Burrio or Burrium, lying 9 miles from ISCA SILVRVM (Caerleon, Gwent), the home of Legio II Augusta, and 12 miles from GOBANNIVM (Abergavenny, Gwent). Burrium also appears in Iter XIII "The route from Isca to Calleva (Silchester, Hampshire)", again listed 9 miles from Isca but this time 11 miles from BLESTIVM (Monmouth, Gwent). Although the Usk settlement is not mentioned in the Ravenna Cosmology (R&C#243) compiled during the seventh century, the River Usk is, listed between the Abona (River Avon) and the Tamion (River Taff, Glamorgan) and named the Isca.
It is possible that the Roman name may be translated something along the lines of 'the [place of the] Knobs', from the Latin word bulla 'bubble, knob, stud',¹ here in its genitive plural form. This idea is not difficult to promote, for the site of the Usk fortress is encircled by a number of small rounded hills, which may be viewed as the source of this curious name without overly stretching the imagination. The modern English name is a 'back-formation' from the nearby River Usk, the name of which is Celtic for 'river' or 'water', while the modern Welsh name is Brynbuga, meaning 'the Hill of the Bogey[man]'.
|... VIXIT AN III ... QVINQVE ... SECVND FE ... LEG II AVG F C|
|"... lived for three years ... five ... the second day of February ... of the Second Augustan Legion the making [of which] he has undertaken."|
(RIB 396; tombstone; primary text)
The only inscribed stone recovered from Usk is known to archaeologists as RIB 396. This tombstone bears three separate and probably unrelated inscriptions; the primary text is given in full above. The secondary text reads A MATER FIL F, which is easily translated "In respect of a mother, a son made this". The tertiary inscription reads simply P M, which may perhaps be expanded Per Meminero or "In order that he will be remembered".
Among the pottery recovered from the site during excavation was a mortarium with graffito scratched around the rim;
'mixing bowl from the contubernium¹ of Messor'.
Sheppard Frere suggested in 1967 that the vexillation Fortress at Usk may have been built during the governorship of Aulus Didius Gallus (AD52-57), and based this suggestion on the words of the Roman historian Tacitus, who says;
"... Didius Gallus maintained the ground gained by his predecessors, and pushed forward a few forts into remoter districts ..." (Tacitus Agricola xiv)
Subsequent excavation in 1978 on the site at Usk confirmed that the fortress was constructed c.AD54.
By c.AD65 the fortress was occupied by Legio XX Valeria Victrix, though whether this was the legion which originally constructed the fortress is unconfirmed.
In c.AD68 the Twentieth Legion were transferred from Burrium to Viroconium Cornoviorum (Wroxeter, Shropshire) to replace Legio XIV Gemina which was removed from Britain by the emperor Nero. The legionary presence in the south-west was maintained by Legio II Augusta, who were moved at this time from Isca Dumnoniorum (Exeter, Devon) to a new fortress at Glevum (Gloucester, Gloucestershire). It is very likely that a number of cohorts from this legion were stationed at the Usk fortress sometime during this period (vide RIB 396 supra)
By c.AD69 the Burrium fortress was totally evacuated and possibly demolished. The settlement continued to prosper until the 4th century.
SO379007 - The east gate of the fortress was excavated in 1971 and was found to have admitted a double carriageway 25 feet (7.6m) wide flanked by projecting timber towers each measuring 10 x 20 feet (3.1 x 6.1 m). The post-holes and remains of a timber bridge across the ditch were buried and preserved by a stone-revetted causeway of packed clay was later constructed across the ditch before the gateway. The original Claudian defences were part-levelled during the Neronian period, to accomodate a large store-base. This rampart was resurrected by the end of the second century as part of the defences of the later civil settlement. Finds attributed to this settlement/industrial period included three very well preserved iron-working furnaces and three wells, one of which remained in use until at least AD350.