Antonine Wall Fort & Camp

Bar Hill, Dunbarton, Strathclyde

NGRef: NS7075
OSMap: LR64
Type: Antonine Wall Fort, Marching Camp.
Principia from SE
The Bar Hill Principia
viewed from the south-east
Roads
Antonine Wall: E (2) to Croy Hill (Strathclyde)
Antonine Wall: W (2) to Auchendavy (Strathclyde)

The Roman Military Encampments

The Antonine Fort

Aside from the outline of its defensive earthworks, the only visible remains here are the foundations of the principia in the fortís interior and a linear bath-building sandwiched between the defensive ramparts and the Antonine curtain-wall, the two being detached.

Principia from NW
The Principia at Bar Hill
viewed from the north-west
"[Antonine] Bar Hill (Fig. 8) is a squarish fort of 3 acres, lying close to the Antonine Wall. It has a single ditch towards the Wall, double on the other three sides. The berm measured from 6 to 8 feet ; the rampart was of turf and was built on a 12-foot stone foundation. The four gates were about 12 to 14 feet wide, single, and built of timber. The two most exposed to attack were protected by tituli (cf. Brough-by-Bainbridge, Fig. 7). At the corners were traces of towers or artillery platforms in the thickness of the rampart. Inside were found the usual headquarters and granary and another building in stone, and a stone bath-house laid close against the north rampart. There were no certain traces of other stone buildings, and the barracks were of wood. The underlying Flavian fort has been described above (G. Macdonald and Park, The Roman Forts on the Bar Hill, Glasgow, 1906)." (Collingwood, pp.46/47)

The Bar Hill fort measures 375 ft. east-west by 369 ft. north-south (c.114 x 112 m) between the ramparts, giving an occupation area of almost 3¼ acres (c.1.3 ha). The fort is detached from the rampart wall itself, lying about 20 - 30 yards to the rear of it. The only other Wall fort to be built separate from the Wall was at Old Kilpatrick. A consequence of this was that the fort was defended nu a single ditch on its north side, facing the Wall, and double-ditches elsewhere. There are four gateways in the ramparts, those on the north and south placed centrally in their sides while those on the east and west are displaced slightly to the north; the gap in the ramparts to the west is not matched by a corresponding causeway across the ditches. There is a short titulum outside the ditch causeway on the south and a longer earthwork protecting the entrance gap on the east. The Military Way passed to the north, between the fort rampart and the Antonine rampart wall.

Bathhouse from E
The Bathhouse at Bar Hill
viewed from the east

The fort was excavated in 1902-5 and 1978-82, during which a number of animal bones were uncovered, including those of Ox, Sheep, Pig, Red Deer, Boar and Fox; the latter animal very likely being hunted and killed for sport and as a means of pest control, certainly not for food. Other finds of note include a number of leather shoes, of men, women and children. Among the artifacts recovered from the interior of the fort was a wooden wheel with an iron rim, the hub of the wheel made of elm, the spokes of willow; decidedly Celtic in design. It is likely that this wheel, and fragments of another three found in rubbish pits at Newstead, were taken as booty or tribute from the lowland Caledonian tribes. Wheel ruts worn away by cart-wheels such as these were noted in one of the fort gateways during excavations.

Possible Agricolan? Fortlet

"Our last Flavian site shall be Bar Hill. Here, on the line of the Antonine Wall, the ditches of an earlier fort were found while digging was going forward in a second-century castellum ; and as it was clear that these earlier ditches had silted up naturally and become overgrown with brushwood before the later fort was built, it was inferred that they belonged to one of the castella which Agricola built on a line between the Forth and Clyde.¹ The fact that no objects of any kind (except one shoe) were discovered, was regarded less as invalidating this conclusion than as showing that the occupation was a very short one. The ditches were from 8 to 11 feet wide and on average about 4 feet deep. Their ground-plan was somewhat complicated ; but it appeared certain that the fort had occupied a rectangular space measuring 180 by 145 feet, with an annexe on the west. Some traces of an earthen rampart were found, but no stone foundation ; if the rampart was 10 feet wide, the internal dimensions would be 160 by 125 feet, or nearly half an acre. Nothing is known of the internal buildings, but a gap about 15 feet wide in the ditch indicates the position of a single gateway." (Collingwood, p.35)
  1. Stated in Tacitus' Agricola chap.23; see Mollins.
Bathhouse from W
The Bar Hill Bathhouse
viewed from the west

The Roman occupation of Bar Hill was possibly first established during the campaigns of governor Gnaeus Julius Agricola sometime around AD80. A small fort of less than ½ acre was found beneath the Antonine Wall fort. It was enclosed by a defensive system consisting of a narrow rampart perhaps 10 feet in width and two (or more) ditches between 8 to 11 feet wide and around four feet deep. There was a single gateway through these defences, near which a sandal from the late-1st C. was found in the ditch infill. The occupation period of this fortlet appears to have been very short, perhaps only a single winter, abandoned when the scene of action had moved north to the Tay. Having said all this, the fortlet lying beneath the Antonine fort at Bar Hill and another at Croy Hill, are now both thought not to be Agricolan, possibly not even constructed by the Roman military, perhaps even by the native inhabitants prior to the coming of Rome.

The Garrison Units at Bar Hill

The Legionary Builders of the Fort and Wall

VEXILLATIONES LEG II AVG ET LEG XX V V F
"Detachments of the Second Augustan Legion and the Twentieth Valiant and Victorious Legion made this [fort]."
(RIB 2171)

There are two inscriptions on stone which record the presence of Roman legions in the area of the Bar Hill fort, with all three British legions being mentioned. It would appear that the Second Augusta and the Twentieth Valeria collaborated in the construction of the fort itself (RIB 2173) while the Sixth Victrix were employed building the curtain wall (RIB 2173). The Second Augusta were normally garrisoned at Caerleon in South Wales, the Sixth Victrix at York in the north of England, and the Twentieth Valeria close to the Welsh border at Chester in Cheshire.

IMP CAESARI T AELIO HADRIANO ANTONINO AVG PIO P P VEXILLATIO LEG XX VAL VIC F PER MIL P III
"For Imperator Caesar Titus Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius, Pater Patriae,¹ a detachment of the Twentieth Legion Valiant and Victorious was responsible for three thousand paces.²"
(RIB 2173; dated: AD139-161)
  1. The emperor Antoninus Pius was named 'father of his country' on his accession in AD139.
  2. I.e. a cohort of the Twentieth constructed three (Roman) miles of the adjacent turf wall.

Cohors Primae Baetasiorum Civium Romanorum
The First Cohort of Baetasii, Citizens of Rome

IMP CAESARI T AEL HAD ANTONINO AVG PIO P P COH I BAETASIOR C R OB VIRTVTEM ET FIDEM
"For Imperator Caesar Titus Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius, Father of his Country, the First Cohort of Baetasii, Citizens of Rome, by reason of their virtue and loyalty."
(RIB 2170; dated: AD139-161)

The first unit to be stationed at the Bar Hill fort were evidently the First Cohort of Baetasians, an auxiliary infantry regiment recruited from the Baetasii tribe of Lower Germany who inhabited the lands between the Rhine and the Meuse. A legionary fortress lay on the Rhine just within the eastern border of the Baetasian territories at Novaesium (Neuss, West Germany). This fortress was formerly occupied - at diffeent times - by two legions later to serve in Britain, the Twentieth and the Sixth, both of which were involved in the building of the Bar Hill fort and the Antonine Wall.

COH I BAETASIOR C R
"The First Cohort of Baetasians, Citizens of Rome."
(RIB 2169; altarstone)

Cohors Primae Hamiorum [Saggitariorum]
The First Cohort of Hamian (Archers)

DEO MARTI CAMVLO MILITES COH I HAMIORVM CIV SC ... ...IVI...
"For the god Martius Camulus,¹ the citizen soldiers of the First Cohort of Hamians, under the command of [...]"
(RIB 2166; altarstone)
  1. The roman god Mars and the Celtic god Camulos were both gods of war. The conflation on this stone, Mars Camulos, is unique in Britain.
DEO SILVANO CARISTIANIVS IVSTINIANVS PRAEF COH I HAMIOR V S L L M
"To the god Silvanus,¹ Caristianius Justinianus, prefect of the First Cohort of Hamians, gladly, willingly and deservedly fulfills his vow."
(RIB 2167; altarstone)
  1. Silvanus was the Latin god of woodland and pastures.

The First Hamian Cohort were the only regiment of auxiliary archers in the entire Roman army of Britain, recruited from a tribe native to Syria. They are recorded at other forts in Britain at Carvoran (vide RIB 1792) on the Stanegate also at Housesteads on Hadrian's Wall, both sites in Northumberland.

Tombstone of a Commander of the First Cohort of Hamians

D M G IVLI MARCELLINI PRAEF COH I HAMIOR
"To the spirits of the departed and Gaius Julius Marcellinus, prefect of the First Cohort of Hamians."
(RIB 2172; tombstone)

The Gods of Roman Bar Hill

Of the nine inscribed stones recorded in the R.I.B. for Bar Hill, five are altarstones. These contain dedicatory inscriptions to the popular Roman gods Apollo (RIB 2165), Mars (RIB 2166) and Silvanus (RIB 2167), also one dedicated to an unknown god (RIB 2168; not shown) and another altarstone containing only the name of a garrison unit (RIB 2169).

DEO APOLLINI...CO... E... C... V S L L M
"To the god Apollo [...] gladly, willingly and deservedly fulfilling a vow."
(RIB 2165; altarstone)

The Dateable Pottery Evidence

Pottery marked with the stamps of eight Antonine potters has been unearthed at the Bar Hill fort: Avitus Form 31, Beliniccus Form 31, Cinnamus Form 37 (3), Divicatus Form 33, Felicio Form 27, Geminius Form 33, Malluro Form 31 and Peculiaris Form 31.

The Numismatic Evidence

Forty Roman coins have been recovered from the Bar Hill fort, the most yielded from any fortification along the Wall. These range from a denarius of Mark Antony found with 12 other coins in the well of the principia courtyard, to a bronze coin of Gordian III, also including 11 of Hadrian, 10 of Trajan (8 of which were found in the well), and 9 coins which cannot be classified.

Honorific Pillar from the Antonine Wall near Bar Hill

IMP CAES T AE HADRI ANTONINO AVG PIO P P VEXILATIONES LEG II AVG ET LEG XX V V
"For Imperator Caesar Titus Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius, father of his country, detachments of the Second Augustan Legion and the Twentieth Legion Loyal and Faithful [made this]."
(RIB 2312; milestone or honorific pillar; dated: AD139-161)

In addition to the nine inscribed stones found in or rear the Bar Hill fort, a Roman milestone or honorific pillar was found along the Wall near Bar Hill, one of only two recorded in the RIB for Scotland, the other being at Cramond on the Firth of Forth near Edinburgh (vide RIB 2313).

Click here for the Suspected Marching Camp at Bar Hill

See: The Archaeology of Roman Britain by R.G. Collingwood (1930);
The Roman Wall in Scotland by Sir George MacDonald (Oxford, 2nd Ed. 1934) pp.271-285;
The Roman Inscriptions of Britain by R.G. Collingwood and R.P. Wright (Oxford 1965);
The Roman Military Diet by R.W. Davies in Britannia ii (1971) pp.122-142;
The Roman Occupations of Scotland by B.R. Hartley in Britannia iii (1972) pp.1-55;
Chronology of the Ancient World by E.J. Bickerman (Thames & Hudson, London, 1980);
Air Reconnaissance in Roman Britain 1977-1984 by G.S. Maxwell & D.R. Wilson in Britannia xviii (1987) pp.28/9;
Chronicle of the Roman Emperors by Chris Scarre (Thames & Hudson, London, 1995);
A Survey of the Coin Finds from the Antonine Wall by Richard Abdy in Britannia xxxiii (2002) pp.189-217.
All English translations, including any inherent mistakes, are my own.

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