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The First Roman Emperors

Imperator Caesar Divi Filius Augustus (31BC-AD14)

OCTAVIAN; AUGUSTUS
Born: 23/09/63BC Gaius Octavius [Thurinus]; in the Palatine district of Rome, just before sunrise
Father: Gaius Octavius, praetor ? BC, governor of Macedonia, died 58BC
Mother: Atia, daughter of M. Atius Balbus and Julia sister of Julius.
Emperor: 16/01/27BC Imp. Caesar Divi filius Augustus, new title conferred by the senate on accession
Died: 19/08/AD14 in his bed at Nola, in Campania, at about 3 pm
History:
  • 44BC (8th May) becomes Gaius Julius Caesar after being adopted by Caesar
  • 43BC consul I; imperator I; Battle of Mutina; married wife2, Claudia; Triumvir
  • 42BC Battle of Philippi
  • 41BC War of Perusia, Parthian Invasion
  • 40BC married wife3, Scribonia; Treaty of Brundisium; Antony marries Octavia
  • 39BC birth of daughter Julia; Parthians repulsed; Treaty of Misenum
  • 38BC (17th Jan.) married wife4: Livia Drusilla/ Julia Augusta, just 3 days after the birth of her son Drusus.; start of war against Sextus Pompeius
  • 36BC Defeatof Sexus Pompeius and Lepidus; Antony's Parthian expedition
  • 35BC Start of Dalmatian War
  • 34BC Dalmatian War ends; Antony annexes Armenia
  • 33BC consul II
  • 32BC Antony divoces Octavia; Oath of Allegiance
  • 31BC consul III; battle of Actium
  • 30BC consul IV; suicide of Antony and Cleopatra; conquest and annexation of Egypt
  • 29BC consul V; Triple Triumph
  • 28BC consul VI; first census and purge of senate
  • 27BC consul VII; he restores the republic and recieves the title Augustus; in summer, left Rome for Gaul & Spain
  • 26BC consul VIII; start of Cantabrian war; made the first Prefect of the City
  • 25BC consul IX; Julia marries Marcellus; expedition of Aelius Gallus to Arabia; Cantabrian war concluded; Ethiopian war; annexation of Galatia
  • 24BC consul X; returns to Rome from Spain & Gaul
  • 23BC consul XI; seriously ill; gives up consulship; Agrippa recieves proconsular imperium for five years
  • 23BC (26 June) tribunicia potestas I, annually thereafter
  • 22BC Marcellus dies; Narbonensis and Cyprus transferred to senate; Augustus leaves for the East
  • 21BC Julia marries Agrippa
  • 20BC Gaius Caesar born; standards recovered from Parthians in diplomatic victory; Tiberius installs a king in Armenia
  • 19BC granted imperium consulare by senate
  • 18BC second purge of senate; laws on adultery, marriage and luxury; Arippa recieves imperium proconsulare and tribunicia potestas for five years
  • 17BC Lucius Caesar born; Gaius and Lucius adopted; Secular Games held (baed on 110 year century)
  • 16BC leaves Rome for Cantabria, to live with mistress: Terentia
  • 15BC annexation of Raetia and the Alps
  • 13BC Agripa's powers renewed
  • 12BC Agrippa dies; Drusus given command on Rhine; Tiberius in Pannonia
  • 12BC (6th March) elected 'Pontifex Maximus', after Lepidus dies
  • 11BC Illyricum transferred to the senate; third purge of senate; the curatores aquarum formed
  • 11BC (12th Feb,) Julia marries Tiberius
  • 9BC Drusus dies
  • 8BC death of Maecenas; month Sextilis renamed August; Augustus' second census; Rome divided into 14 regions; Tiberius leaves for Germany
  • 7BC Tiberius campaigns in Germany
  • 6BC Tiberius recieves tribunicia potestas for 5 years, but retires to Rhodes
  • 5BC consul XII, TP 18; Gaius Caesar proclaimed princeps iuventutis
  • 4BC death of Herod
  • 2BC consul XIII; TP 21; Lucius Caesar princeps iuventutis; dedicates Forum; Julia exiled; Lex Fufia Caninia
  • 2BC (5th Feb.) 'Pater Patriae', honorary title conferred by senate
  • AD1 Gaius consul, sent to Syria
  • AD2 Lucius Caesar dies at Massilia (Marseilles); Tiberius returns to Rome
  • AD3 Gaius Caesar wounded in Armenia
  • AD4 (21st Feb.) Gaius Caesar dies at Limyra in Lycia
  • AD4 Tiberius and Agrippa Posthumus adopted; Tiberius recieves tribunicia potestas for 10 years; Lex Aelia Sentia; fourth purge of senate
  • AD6 the aerarium militare started; the vigiles; annexation of Judaea; Sardinia transferred to the Emperor; start of Pannonian revolt
  • AD7 Posthumus banished to Planasia
  • AD9 Varus' 3 legions massacred in Teutoberger forest; Lex Papia Popaea
  • AD13 Tiberius' tribunicia potestas renewed
  • AD14 Augustus' third census

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